Top 5 Debugging Tips and Tricks for Beginners

Top 5 Debugging Tips and Tricks for Beginners

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Debugging is an essential skill for any developer, whether you're just starting out or have years of experience. It is the process of finding and fixing errors or bugs in your code. While debugging can be a challenging task, especially for beginners, there are several tips and tricks that can help streamline the process. In this article, we will discuss the top five debugging tips and tricks for beginners, accompanied by code examples in Python and TypeScript. Additionally, we'll explore the usage of debuggers and how they can assist in the debugging process.

1. Understand the Error Message

When you encounter an error in your code, the first step is to carefully read and understand the error message. Error messages often provide valuable information about the issue, including the specific line number and a brief description of the problem. By analyzing the error message, you can narrow down the scope of your debugging efforts and focus on the relevant code. Let's look at an example in Python:

def divide(a, b):
    return a / b

result = divide(5, 0)


ZeroDivisionError: division by zero

In this example, the error message clearly indicates that a division by zero occurred, allowing us to identify the problem in the divide function.

2. Use Print Statements

One of the simplest yet effective debugging techniques is using print statements to display the values of variables at various points in your code. By strategically placing print statements, you can track the flow of your program and identify any unexpected behavior. Consider the following Python code snippet:

def calculate_sum(a, b):
    print("Calculating the sum...")
    print("a =", a)
    print("b =", b)
    return a + b

result = calculate_sum(3, 4)
print("Result =", result)


Calculating the sum...
a = 3
b = 4
Result = 7

In this example, the print statements provide insights into the values of a and b, helping you verify the correctness of your calculations.

3. Use a Debugger

Debuggers are powerful tools that allow you to step through your code line by line, examine variable values, and identify the exact point where an error occurs. In Python, you can use the built-in pdb module, while TypeScript developers can leverage debuggers like the one provided by Visual Studio Code. Here's an example of using the pdb debugger in Python:

import pdb

def calculate_sum(a, b):
    pdb.set_trace()  # Set a breakpoint
    return a + b

result = calculate_sum(3, 4)
print("Result =", result)

Upon executing this code, the debugger will pause the execution at the breakpoint (pdb.set_trace()) and provide an interactive environment where you can inspect variable values and step through the code.

4. Divide and Conquer

When faced with complex issues, it can be helpful to divide the problem into smaller parts and test each part independently. By isolating specific sections of code, you can identify which part is causing the problem and narrow down your debugging efforts. This approach is particularly useful when dealing with larger codebases. Consider the following TypeScript example:

function calculateAverage(numbers: number[]): number {
    // Divide the problem into smaller parts
    const sum = calculateSum(numbers);
    const average = sum / numbers.length;
    return average;

function calculateSum(numbers: number[]): number {
    let sum = 0;
    for (const num of numbers) {
        sum += num;
    return sum;

const numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
const average = calculateAverage(numbers);
console.log("Average =", average);

In this example, we divided the problem of calculating the average of an array of numbers into two functions: calculateAverage and calculateSum. By testing each function independently, we can isolate potential issues and ensure the correctness of our calculations.

5. Use Logging and Assertions

Logging and assertions are powerful tools that can help you gain insights into the state of your code at runtime. By strategically placing log statements or using assertions, you can check the values of variables and ensure that certain conditions hold true. Let's explore an example in Python:

def calculate_average(numbers):
    assert isinstance(numbers, list), "Numbers must be a list"
    assert len(numbers) > 0, "Numbers list must not be empty"

    total_sum = sum(numbers)
    average = total_sum / len(numbers)

    return average

numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
average = calculate_average(numbers)
print("Average =", average)

In this code snippet, we use assertions to verify that the input numbers is a list and that it is not empty. If these conditions are not met, an AssertionError will be raised, indicating that there is an issue with the inputs. Logging can also be used to output intermediate values or debug information during runtime, providing additional insights into the flow of your program.


Debugging is an essential skill for developers, and by applying these top five tips and tricks, beginners can enhance their debugging proficiency. Understanding error messages, using print statements, leveraging debuggers, dividing and conquering complex problems, and employing logging and assertions can significantly improve your debugging workflow. Remember, debugging is not just about fixing errors; it's also about understanding your code better and improving its overall quality. So, embrace these techniques and become a more efficient and effective developer.

Happy debugging!

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